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Dry air, coolant, and liquid nitrogen were applied, respectively, to study the effect of temperature and stress on plastic deformation in scratching monocrystalline silicon. Phases generated in surface deformation were characterized by means of the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the size of the amorphous transformation zone and the depth of slip penetration in sample subsurface were mainly dependent on the stress field applied. The influence of the temperature variation to -196 °C was surprisingly small and the low temperature did not suppress the phase transformation and dislocation activity.