Temperature-dependent femtosecond pump–probe experiments are performed to explore the ultrafast carrier-relaxation processes in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well sample, in which nanometer-scale cluster structures have been identified. Combined with the time-resolved photoluminescence results, we can identify three stages of carrier relaxation. The fast-decay time, ranging from several hundred femtoseconds to 1 picosecond, corresponds to the process reaching a local quasi-equilibrium condition, in which carriers reach a thermal distribution within one or a few nearby indium-rich clusters. The slow-decay time, ranging from tens to a couple hundred picoseconds, corresponds to the process reaching a global quasi-equilibrium condition, in which carriers reach a thermal distribution among different clusters of various potential minima. In this stage, the mechanism of carrier transport over barriers between clusters dominates the relaxation process. Finally, carrier recombination dominates the relaxation process with the carrier lifetime in the range of a few nanoseconds.