We have examined the origins of luminescence in N-ion-implanted epitaxial GaAs, using a combination of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and low-energy electron-excited nanoscale-luminescence spectroscopy. A comparison of reference, as-implanted, and implanted-plus-annealed samples reveals a variety of emissions. In all samples, we observe the GaAs fundamental band-gap emission, as well as several emissions related to GaAs native defects. In the as-implanted and implanted-plus-annealed samples, an emission related to the implantation-induced defects, is also observed. Interestingly, in the implanted-plus-annealed samples, we identify a near-infrared emission associated with GaAsN nanocrystallites.