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The noise-tee - a lightwave device for microwave noise measurements

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1 Author(s)
van den Brink, R.F.M. ; KPN-Res., Leidschendam, Netherlands

An innovative lightwave method is proposed to insert noise in electronic circuits in favor of microwave noise measurements. The proposed noise-tee has attractive additional features compared to the use of 50 Ω noise sources: 1) the inserted noise level and noise bandwidth is continuously variable over a wide dynamic range; 2) the wideband scaling accuracy of this level, relative to a pre-calibrated level, equals the accuracy of simple DC-current measurements; 3) level-induced impedance variations are negligible, compared to the 20% impedance variation of a commonly used microwave noise source; and 4) noise-tees enable the realization of 100% reflective noise sources, in favor of two-port noise-parameter measurements

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 3 )