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Measurement and modeling of the millimeter-wave backscatter response of soil surfaces

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3 Author(s)
Nashashibi, A. ; Radiation Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Ulaby, F.T. ; Sarabandi, K.

The millimeter-wave (MMW) backscatter response of bare-soil was examined by conducting experimental measurements at 35 and 94 GHz using a truck-mounted polarimetric scatterometer and by developing appropriate models to relate the backscattering coefficient to the soil's surface and volume properties. The experimental measurements were conducted for three soil surfaces with different roughnesses under both dry and wet conditions. The experimental measurements indicate that in general the backscattering coefficient is comprised of a surface scattering component σs and a volume scattering component σ v. For wet soil conditions, the backscatter is dominated by surface scattering, while for dry conditions both surface and volume scattering are significant, particularly at 94 GHz. Because theoretical surface scattering models were found incapable of predicting the measured backscatter, a semiempirical surface scattering model was developed that relates the surface scattering component of the total backscatter to the roughness parameter ks, where k=2π/λ and s is the rms height, and the dielectric constant of the soil surface. Volume scattering was modeled using radiative transfer theory with the packed soil particles acting as the host material and the air voids as the scattering particles. The combined contribution of surface and volume scattering was found to provide good agreement between the model calculations and the experimental observations

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:34 ,  Issue: 2 )