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Fabrication and Evaluation of Nano-Scale Optical Circuits Using Sol-Gel Materials With Photo-Induced Refractive Index Variation Characteristics

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4 Author(s)
Ono, S. ; Grad. Sch. of Bionics, Tokyo Univ. of Technol., Tokyo ; Yoshimura, T. ; Sato, T. ; Oshima, J.

Nano-scale optical circuits with core thickness of ~ 230 nm and core width of ~ 1 mum were fabricated and evaluated, using the photo-induced refractive index variation sol-gel materials, whose refractive index gradually increases by UV light exposure and baking. Propagation loss of linear waveguides was 1.86 dB/cm for TE mode and 1.89 dB/cm for TM mode at 633 nm in wavelength, indicating that there were small polarization dependences of ~ 0.03 dB/cm. Spot sizes of guided beams along core width direction and along core thickness direction were, respectively, 0.6 and 0.3 mu m for both TE mode and TM mode. Bending loss of S-bending waveguides was reduced from 0.44 to 0.24 dB for TE mode with increasing the bending curvature radius from 5 to 60 mu m. Although the bending loss for TM mode was slightly higher than that for TE mode, the difference was less than 10%. Branching loss of Y-branching waveguides was reduced from 1.33 to 0.08 dB for TE mode, and from 1.34 to 0.12 dB for TM mode with decreasing the branching angle from 80deg to 20deg. From these results, it is concluded that the photo-induced refractive index variation sol-gel materials can realize miniaturized optical circuits with sizes of several tens of microns and guided beam confinement within a cross section area less than 1.0 mum2 with small polarization dependences, indicating potential applications to intra-chip optical interconnects.

Published in:

Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 9 )