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In this paper, the model parameters of a two-layer dielectric structure with random slightly rough boundaries are retrieved from data that consist of the backscattering coefficients for multiple polarizations, angles, and frequencies. We use the small perturbation method to solve the forward problem. The inversion problem is then formulated as a least square problem and is solved using a global optimization method known as simulated annealing, which is shown to be a robust retrieval algorithm for our purpose. The algorithm performance depends on several parameters. We make recommendations on these parameters and propose a technique for exiting local minima when encountered. We test the sensitivity of the inversion scheme to measurement noise and present the noise analysis results.