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We present a micromachined cantilever with an integrated high-bandwidth resonator for direct measurement of tip-sample interaction forces in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. Force measurements are achieved by a diffraction grating that serves as a differential displacement sensor for the tip motion relative to the cantilever body. Time-resolved tip-sample interaction force measurement is demonstrated on a silicon sample following calibration of the probe structure. By using lock-in detection, the harmonics of periodic tip-sample interaction have been utilized to obtain high-contrast, material specific images. The harmonic images of patterned silicon/silicon nitride control samples and triblock copolymers are presented.