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An experimental investigation is reported on in situ encapsulating copper nanoparticles with a nanolayer of hydrocarbon coating. Copper nanoparticles produced by the flow-levitation method are in situ encapsulated by the dielectric barrier discharge, which generates carbon and hydrogen plasmas for forming a polymerized nanolayer of hydrocarbon at the surface of Cu nanoparticles. The structural, chemical components and optical properties of the encapsulated Cu nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectra, and UV-visible absorption.