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A three-dimensional phase-contrast imaging technique that does not involve fluorescent labeling has been developed for observing floating cells. In this method, a single floating cell is made to rotate and images are acquired at several orientations of the cell using a phase-contrast microscope. From these two-dimensional phase-contrast images, three-dimensional cross-sectional images are obtained using the conventional computed tomography algorithm. This proposed method enabled successful rotation of a floating cell (a breast cancer cell line) and reconstruction of three-dimensional phase-contrast images. In these reconstructed three-dimensional images, the distribution of cell organelles is obtained and the cell nucleus is clearly distinguishable.