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ZnS nanowires with periodically alternating twins along the growth direction of wires have been synthesized via a thermal evaporation method. Structural characterizations reveal that both sphalerite (cubic) and wurtzite (hexagonal) phases coexist in the synthesized nanowires. The periodically twinned ZnS nanowires are formed through the vapor-solid mechanism. High quality of the nanowires is confirmed by the optical absorption and the photoluminescence observations combined with large ratio surface and interfaces induced by the twin modulations. The perfect crystal structure indicates their potential applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.