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Monolithic integration of photonics and electronics has been achieved in silicon by three-dimensionally integrating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and waveguide-coupled microdisk resonators. Implantation of oxygen ions into a silicon-on-insulator substrate with a patterned thermal oxide mask followed by a high temperature anneal was utilized to realize the buried photonic structures. This results in the formation of vertically stacked silicon layers separated from each other by an intervening oxide layer. Transistors are fabricated on the surface silicon by conventional processing techniques. Optical and electronic functionalities are thus separated into two different layers of silicon, paving the way toward dense three-dimensional optoelectronic integration.