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The light-output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was enhanced by microhole array pattern and roughened GaOx film grown on the exposed surface. The GaOx film was grown by photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation via H2O and formed a naturally rough oxide surface and GaOx/GaN interface. Compared with that of conventional broad-area LEDs, the output power of the microhole array LED and the surface-oxidized microhole array LED increased by 1.38 and 1.82 times at 20-mA forward current, respectively. The results show that the microhole array pattern with the roughened surface oxide method could significantly enhance light extraction efficiency and be a candidate for manufacturing high-efficient low-cost GaN-based LEDs.