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A position sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) is proposed using the adaptive full-order observer with inductance identification. First, mathematical models are discussed for robustness improvement to inductance variation and inductance identification in IPMSMs, the models show that a high-frequency signal needs to be injected to identify the inductance. Next, novel adaptive schemes for inductance identification are proposed here. Finally, identification experiments under IPMSM position sensorless control are carried out with the proposed methods, in which the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods are shown in terms of inductance identification performance and the convergence of position estimation error.