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Traceability is a key factor for the agri-food sector. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, which is widely adopted for supply chain management, can be used effectively for the traceability management. In this paper, a framework for the evaluation of a traceability system for the agri-food industry is presented, and the automation level in an RFID-based traceability system is analyzed and compared with respect to traditional ones. Internal and external traceabilities are both considered and formalized, in order to classify different environments, according to their automation level. Traceability systems used in a sample sector are experimentally analyzed, showing that, by using RFID technology, agri-food enterprises increase their automation level and also their efficiency, in a sustainable way.