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The polarimetric backscattering coefficients (vv-, hh-, hv-, and vh-polarizations) of a flooded rice field are measured using L- and C-band ground-based polarimetric scatterometers. These measurements were made during the rice growth cycle, i.e., from the transplanting period to the harvest period (May to October 2006), to understand the feasibility of modeling and estimating rice growth. We also collected ground truth data that include fresh and dry biomasses, plant height, leaf area index, and leaf size. To study the incidence angle effect, the scatterometer data were collected at four different incidence angles, i.e., 30deg , 40deg, 50deg, and 60deg. In this paper, we show that the backscattering coefficients of a rice field can accurately be modeled using the radiative transfer theory. We also demonstrate that a polarimetric scatterometer is an effective tool for estimating rice growth. The hh-polarized backscattering coefficient is more sensitive to rice growth than its vv-polarization counterpart. The polarimetric ratio can be used to estimate rice growth accurately.