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In this paper, the performance of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is improved using a new cylindrical electromagnetic bandgap substrate. The DRA is fed by a coaxial probe and integrated within a cylindrical electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) substrate to increase the antenna gain. The cylindrical electromagnetic bandgap structure is composed of two distinctive periodic structures. The first structure is made of metallic rings, while the second is formed of grounding vias, which are placed radially and circularly. To describe and optimize this EBG stucture, a parametric study using a finite integration method was carried out. Furthermore, an antenna prototype was fabricated and measured to validate the proposed concept. The radiation patterns and return loss obtained from measurements demonstrate a good performance in terms of impedance matching and gain enhancement.