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Transverse slot array antennas fed by a half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) are proposed and developed in this paper. The design concept of these new radiating structures is based on the study of the field distribution and phase constant along the HMSIW as well as on the resonant characteristics of a single slot etched on its top conducting wall. Two types of HMSIW-fed slot array antennas, operating, respectively, in X-band and Ka-band, are designed following a procedure similar to the design of slot array antennas fed by a dielectric-filled rectangular waveguide. Compared with slot array antennas fed by a conventional rectangular waveguide, such proposed HMSIW-fed slot array antennas possess the advantages of low profile, compact size, low cost, and easy integration with other microwave and millimeter wave planar circuits. It is worth noting that the width of HMSIW slot array antennas is reduced by nearly half compared to that of slot array antennas fed by a substrate integrated waveguide.