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In this paper, a dynamic priority resource-allocation (DPRA) scheme is proposed for uplinks in IEEE 802.16 wireless communication systems. The DPRA scheme dynamically gives priority values to four types of service traffic based on their urgency degrees and allocates system radio resources according to their priority values. It can maximize the system throughput and satisfy differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Furthermore, the DPRA scheme performs consistent allocation for packets of users to conform to the uplink frame structure of IEEE 802.16, to fulfill the QoS requirement, and to reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed DPRA scheme performs very close to the optimal method, which is by exhaustive search in system throughput, and it outperforms the conventional efficient and fair scheduling (EFS) algorithm in the performance measures such as system throughput, real-time polling service (rtPS) packet dropping rate, ratio of unsatisfied non-real-time polling service (nrtPS), and average transmission rate of the best effort (BE) service. In addition, the DPRA scheme takes only 1/1000 and 1/10 the computational times of the optimal method and the conventional EFS algorithm, respectively, thus making it more feasible for real applications.