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Pulsed discharge in water produces transient pressure waves. For one kind of high-current electron accelerators composed of a water pulse-forming line and a ceramic-insulated vacuum diode, the mechanical stability of the water-vacuum interface should be taken into account during operations. In this paper, by combining empirical formulas of a plasma-driven water-shock theory with a self-consistent underwater explosive approach, a finite element model was introduced to investigate the shock-wave behaviors. The pressure-time history and ceramic mechanical response to pressure waves were presented. In order to get the pressure profile and verify the calculation models, the arc pressure test, including ldquopoint-planerdquo electrode system, was carried out based on a ten-stage Marx generator. Peak pressures of shock waves were measured by the piezoelectric sensor, and related results have a close approximation to the predictions. The relationship between peak pressure and shock-wave energy under nanosecond time-scale pulsed-discharge condition was also obtained in the experiment. These results may be helpful for the estimation of a water shock when designing structural components of pulsed-power machines.