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A decentralized adaptive methodology is presented for large-scale nonlinear systems with model uncertainties and time-delayed interconnections unmatched in control inputs. The interaction terms with unknown time-varying delays are bounded by unknown nonlinear bounding functions related to all states and are compensated by choosing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using the function approximation technique based on neural networks. The proposed memoryless local controller for each subsystem can simply be designed by extending the dynamic surface design technique to nonlinear systems with time-varying delayed interconnections. In addition, we prove that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly bounded, and the control errors converge to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system.