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A built-in self-test (BIST) approach is presented for the logic resources in the programmable input/output (I/O) tiles in Virtex-5 field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). A total of 15 BIST configurations were developed to test the I/O cell programmable logic resources in all modes of operation. The approach utilizes dedicated I/O buffer bypass routing in the I/O tile such that the BIST is package independent and applicable to all levels of testing from wafer-level to system-level. The approach offers control of BIST execution and maximal diagnostic resolution of faulty I/O tiles for device and package independent testing. Either the boundary scan interface or a simple system-level interface may be used for BIST execution, control, and diagnosis independent of the configuration interface. Experimental results are presented including fault detection capabilities.