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Dependence of Flip Chip Solder Reliability on Filler Settling

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2 Author(s)
Cheng-fu Chen ; Dept. of Mech. Eng., Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA ; Karulkar, P.C.

Thermomechanical reliability of solder joints in flip-chip packages is usually analyzed by assuming a homogeneous underfill ignoring the settling of filler particles. However, filler settling does impact flip chip reliability. This paper reports a numerical study of the influence of filler settling on the fatigue estimation of flip-chip solder joints. In total, nine underfill materials ( 35 vol% silica filler in three epoxies with three filler settling profiles for each epoxy) are individually introduced in a 2-D finite element (FE) model to compare the thermal response of flip chip solder joints that are surrounded by the underfill. The results show that the fatigue indicators for the solder joints (inelastic shear strain increments and inelastic shear strain energy density) corresponding to a gradual, nonuniform filler profile studied in this paper can be smaller than those associated with the uniform filler profile, suggesting that certain gradual filler settling profiles in conjunction with certain resin grades may favor a longer solder fatigue lifetime. The origin of this intriguing observation is in the fact that the solder fatigue indicators are a function of the thermal mismatch among the die, substrate, solder, and underfill materials. The thermal mechanics interplayed among these materials along with a gradual filler profile may allow for minimizing thermal mismatch; and thus lead to lower fatigue indicators.

Published in:

Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:32 ,  Issue: 4 )