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A general lossless joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme based on linear codes and random interleavers for multiple-access channels (MACs) is presented and then analyzed in this paper. By the information-spectrum approach and the code-spectrum approach, it is shown that a linear code with a good joint spectrum can be used to establish limit-approaching lossless JSCC schemes for correlated general sources and general MACs, where the joint spectrum is a generalization of the input-output weight distribution. Some properties of linear codes with good joint spectra are investigated. A formula on the ldquodistancerdquo property of linear codes with good joint spectra is derived, based on which, it is further proved that, the rate of any systematic codes with good joint spectra cannot be larger than the reciprocal of the corresponding alphabet cardinality, and any sparse generator matrices cannot yield linear codes with good joint spectra. The problem of designing arbitrary rate coding schemes is also discussed. A novel idea called ldquogeneralized puncturingrdquo is proposed, which makes it possible that one good low-rate linear code is enough for the design of coding schemes with multiple rates. Finally, various coding problems of MACs are reviewed in a unified framework established by the code-spectrum approach, under which, criteria and candidates of good linear codes in terms of spectrum requirements for such problems are clearly presented.