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In this paper, we introduce a mathematical framework for the characterization of network interference in wireless systems. We consider a network in which the interferers are scattered according to a spatial Poisson process and are operating asynchronously in a wireless environment subject to path loss, shadowing, and multipath fading. We start by determining the statistical distribution of the aggregate network interference. We then investigate four applications of the proposed model: 1) interference in cognitive radio networks; 2) interference in wireless packet networks; 3) spectrum of the aggregate radio-frequency emission of wireless networks; and 4) coexistence between ultrawideband and narrowband systems. Our framework accounts for all the essential physical parameters that affect network interference, such as the wireless propagation effects, the transmission technology, the spatial density of interferers, and the transmitted power of the interferers.