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The acoustic spectrum of a propeller-driven aircraft is dominated by a series of spectral lines that are harmonically related to the blade rate (which is equal to the product of the propeller rotation rate and the number of blades on the propeller). We show that an array of acoustic sensors towed below the sea surface can be used for the passive detection and localization of such an aircraft. The acoustic energy from an aircraft is found to reach the subsurface sensors via two propagation paths: a bottom reflection path that enables the aircraft to be detected at long ranges, and a direct path that is present only when the aircraft passes overhead. For each of these paths, the observed variation with horizontal range of the Doppler shift in the blade rate closely matches the variation predicted by the simple model presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is also obtained for the variation with horizontal range of the aircraft's apparent bearing. Thus, by using the observed Doppler shift and apparent bearing information, we were able to estimate the aircraft's horizontal range, speed, direction, and altitude.