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The electrical interfacing of semiconductor chips with components of the brain is considered. Both directions of signal transduction between the electronic and the ionic system are described for individual electronic devices such as capacitors or transistors and for multi-device arrays, respectively, on the levels of ion channels, of nerve cells and of brain tissue. The investigation relies on the combination of experimental techniques of semiconductor technology, of molecular biology and of neurophysiology. The observations form a basis for the development of sensors and actuators in biotechnology, of advanced instruments in neurophysiology and of improved devices in neuroprosthetics.