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This paper proposes a novel computational efficient adaptive nonlinear equalizer based on combination of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and functional link artificial neural network (CFFLANN) to compensate linear and nonlinear distortions in nonlinear communication channel. This convex nonlinear combination results in improving the speed while retaining the lower steady-state error. In addition, since the CFFLANN needs not the hidden layers, which exist in conventional neural-network-based equalizers, it exhibits a simpler structure than the traditional neural networks (NNs) and can require less computational burden during the training mode. Moreover, appropriate adaptation algorithm for the proposed equalizer is derived by the modified least mean square (MLMS). Results obtained from the simulations clearly show that the proposed equalizer using the MLMS algorithm can availably eliminate various intensity linear and nonlinear distortions, and be provided with better anti-jamming performance. Furthermore, comparisons of the mean squared error (MSE), the bit error rate (BER), and the effect of eigenvalue ratio (EVR) of input correlation matrix are presented.