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Cross-layer techniques represent efficient means to enhance throughput and increase the transmission reliability of wireless communication systems. In this paper, a cross-layer design of aggressive adaptive modulation and coding (A-AMC), truncated automatic repeat request (T-ARQ), and user scheduling is proposed for multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems, where the impacts of feedback delay (FD) and limited feedback (LF) on channel state information (CSI) are also considered. The A-AMC and T-ARQ mechanism selects the appropriate modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to achieve higher spectral efficiency while satisfying the service requirement on the packet loss rate (PLR), profiting from the feasibility of using different MCSs to retransmit a packet, which is destined to a scheduled user selected to exploit multiuser diversity and enhance the system's performance in terms of both transmission efficiency and fairness. The system's performance is evaluated in terms of the average PLR, average spectral efficiency (ASE), outage probability, and average packet delay, which are derived in closed form, considering transmissions over Rayleigh-fading channels. Numerical results and comparisons are provided and show that A-AMC combined with T-ARQ yields higher spectral efficiency than the conventional scheme based on adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), while keeping the achieved PLR closer to the system's requirement and reducing delay. Furthermore, the effects of the number of ARQ retransmissions, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, normalized FD, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook are studied and discussed.