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In this paper a Markov chain based analytical model is proposed to evaluate the slotted CSMA/CA algorithm specified in the MAC layer of IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The analytical model consists of two two-dimensional Markov chains, used to model the state transition of an 802.15.4 device, during the periods of a transmission and between two consecutive frame transmissions, respectively. By introducing the two Markov chains a small number of Markov states are required and the scalability of the analytical model is improved. The analytical model is used to investigate the impact of the CSMA/CA parameters, the number of contending devices, and the data frame size on the network performance in terms of throughput and energy efficiency. It is shown by simulations that the proposed analytical model can accurately predict the performance of slotted CSMA/CA algorithm for uplink, downlink and bi-direction traffic, with both acknowledgement and non-acknowledgement modes.