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We propose and demonstrate an AC-coupled burst-mode transmitter with a differential interface for 10-Gbit/s-class passive optical network (PON) systems by using a novel baseline-wander common-mode-rejection (BLW-CMR) technique. This technique can cancel the transient responses of capacitors at the AC-coupled differential interface, and produce an optical burst-mode signal with a fast response. We confirmed the feasibility of this technique experimentally with the prototype we developed. The response time of the optical burst-mode signal was 500 ps, which is the fastest response time reported for a burst-mode transmitter. Good temperature dependences were also observed. Moreover, we conducted a burst-mode upstream experiment using a burst-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver that we developed for 10 G-EPON systems. We obtained a large loss budget of 33 dB and a wide dynamic range of 25.5 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3.