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Accurate tissue and structure segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans is critical in several applications. In most approaches this task is handled through two sequential steps. We propose to carry out cooperatively both tissue and subcortical structure segmentation by distributing a set of local and cooperative Markov random field (MRF) models. Tissue segmentation is performed by partitioning the volume into subvolumes where local MRFs are estimated in cooperation with their neighbors to ensure consistency. Local estimation fits precisely to the local intensity distribution and thus handles nonuniformity of intensity without any bias field modelization. Similarly, subcortical structure segmentation is performed via local MRF models that integrate localization constraints provided by a priori fuzzy description of brain anatomy. Subcortical structure segmentation is not reduced to a subsequent processing step but joined with tissue segmentation: the two procedures cooperate to gradually and conjointly improve model accuracy. We propose a framework to implement this distributed modeling integrating cooperation, coordination, and local model checking in an efficient way. Its evaluation was performed using both phantoms and real 3 T brain scans, showing good results and in particular robustness to nonuniformity and noise with a low computational cost. This original combination of local MRF models, including anatomical knowledge, appears as a powerful and promising approach for MR brain scan segmentation.