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Image segmentation is an old and difficult problem. One of the fundamental weaknesses of current computer vision systems to be used in practical applications is their inability to adapt the segmentation process as real-world changes occur in the image. We present the first closed loop image segmentation system which incorporates a genetic algorithm to adapt the segmentation process to changes in image characteristics caused by variable environmental conditions such as time of day, time of year, clouds, etc. The segmentation problem is formulated as an optimization problem and the genetic algorithm efficiently searches the hyperspace of segmentation parameter combinations to determine the parameter set which maximizes the segmentation quality criteria. The goals of our adaptive image segmentation system are to provide continuous adaptation to normal environmental variations, to exhibit learning capabilities, and to provide robust performance when interacting with a dynamic environment. We present experimental results which demonstrate learning and the ability to adapt the segmentation performance in outdoor color imagery.