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This paper proposes a novel framework, based on State Estimation, as a Network Management System approach in order to control the traffic flow, routing, hardware malfunctioning, congestion and resource management in Data Communication Networks. Our proposed approach is aimed at eliminating anomalies and other discrepancies between network system models that typically lead to poor network performance and threaten the network integrity and security. The framework is initially validated using a case study which focuses on congestion control and has demonstrated favourable results in terms of enhanced data delivery with fewer packet losses and retransmissions. The results also suggests that State Estimation based congestion control mechanism not only offers improved system monitoring but it also enables enhanced control and network security.