Skip to Main Content
To represent 3-D space in detail, it is necessary to acquire 3-D shapes and textures simultaneously and efficiently through the use of precise trajectories of sensors. However, there is no reliable, quick, cheap, and handy method for acquiring accurate high-resolution 3-D data on objects in outdoor and moving environments. In this paper, we propose a combination of charge-coupled device cameras, a small and inexpensive laser scanner, an inexpensive inertial measurement unit, and Global Positioning System for a UAV-borne 3-D mapping system. Direct georeferencing is achieved automatically using all of the sensors without any ground control points. A new method of direct georeferencing by the combination of bundle block adjustment and Kalman filtering is proposed. This allows objects to be rendered richly in shape and detailed texture automatically via a UAV from low altitude. This mapping system has been experimentally used in recovery efforts after natural disasters such as landslides, as well as in applications such as river monitoring.