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We demonstrate transverse mode control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and 2-D VCSEL arrays. By etching a periodic arrangement of circular holes into the top distributed Bragg reflector mirror, we are able to control the lasing modes through index and loss confinement. Theoretical modeling of these confinement effects are shown to be consistent with experimental measurements. Photonic crystal etched patterns and ion-implanted photonic lattices have been employed to fabricate coherently-coupled 2-D arrays. Control of the array supermodes from the out-of-phase and in-phase conditions is discussed. Designs of photonic crystal coherent VCSEL arrays for high-power emission and beam steering applications are described.