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This paper proposes an efficient method for localization and pose estimation for mobile robot navigation using passive radio-frequency identification (RFID). We assume that the robot is able to identify IC tags and measure the robot's pose based on the relation between the previous and current location according to the IC tags. However, there arises the problem of uncertainty of location due to the nature of the antenna and IC tags. In other words, an error is always present which is relative to the sensing area of the antenna. Many researches have used external sensors in order to reduce the location errors, with few researches presented involving purely RFID driven systems. Our proposed algorithm that uses only passive RFID is able to estimate the robot's location and orientation more precisely by using trigonometric functions and the IC tags' Cartesian coordinates in a regular gridlike pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed method effectively estimates both the location and the pose of a mobile robot during navigation.