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Under the highly developed automation today, the manufacture of saxophone is still a nonautomatic process and much relies on highly skilled technicians. In order to insure the timbre quality, the sound of finished saxophone must be tested in the final inspection stage. The evaluation of timbre quality mainly depends on the professional musicians' hearing judgment; however, the sensitivity of human perception can be influenced by many factors. To improve the reliability of saxophone timbre quality inspection, an automatic multiclass timbre classification system (AMTCS) is developed and used to assist in the inspection work. The AMTCS is composed of our proposed waveform-shape-based feature extraction method in parameterization phase and multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system in classification phase. The numerical experiments show that the musical instrument classification accuracy obtained by our proposed AMTCS is satisfactory. Through employing the AMTCS, strong assistance was provided to the inspection of saxophone timbre quality, and a perfect identification rate on the saxophones with different timbre quality levels is achieved. Moreover, the significant tones having impact on saxophone timbre quality can also be easily identified by AMTCS.