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Currently, damage effect of high power microwave (HPM) on electronic equipments is of increasing interest. HPM can disturb, damage, or destroy many military or civil electronic equipments. In this paper, the representative HPM waveform is investigated in time and frequency field respectively, and the main characteristics (peak power, rise time, power density, etc) are analyzed and listed. HPM generation devices and radiation are also discussed. Coupling energy into electronic devices via front door and back door, as a function of coupling coefficient and the effective area, is modeled. By presenting lots of kinds of coupling modes and paths, damage effects are divided into five different classes, and damage mechanism of HPM on electronic equipments is proven in the paper.