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This paper proposes a novel incoherent transceiver structure for the optical modulation scheme deploying polarization shift keying (Pol-SK) in conjunction with optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA). The system has been accurately analyzed taking into account the presence of optical amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, electronic receiver noise, photodiode shot-noise and also multiple access interference (MAI). The application of optical tapped-delay lines in the receiver as the CDMA-decoder has also been investigated. In terms of spreading code, a newly introduced prime code family named as double-padded modified prime code has been utilized. A comprehensive set of results in the literatures showed that the performance of the binary system is approximately 3 dB better than intensity modulations. Therefore, in our following proposed transceiver architecture we have also employed binary Pol-SK modulation. Our results indicate that the proposed architecture consumes less power while enhances the system capacity. Moreover, since the optical beam power is constant, the system has immunity against the self- and cross-phase modulations. Above all, the polarization-based scheme is more promising for very-long-haul high-speed transmissions over the OCDMA networks.