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The coupling between negative and positive index medium waveguides is investigated theoretically in this paper. A coupled mode theory is developed for such a waveguide system and its validity is verified. Interesting phenomena in the coupled waveguides are demonstrated, which occur in the case when the negative index medium waveguide in isolation guides its mode backward. A new type of coupled mode solution that varies exponentially with the coupling length is found in the special case when the propagation constants of two individual waveguides are nearly the same. A coupler operating in this case is insensitive to the coupling length, and its coupling efficiency can reach 100% as long as the coupling length is long enough. However, when the propagation constants of the two individual waveguides differ greatly, the coupled mode solution is still a periodic function of the coupling length, but the coupled power is output backward. In addition, the modes in the composite waveguide system are also studied using the coupled mode theory, and their fundamental properties are revealed.