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SPARC64: a 64-b 64-active-instruction out-of-order-execution MCM processor

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3 Author(s)
Williams, T. ; HaL Computer Systems, Campbell, CA, USA ; Patkar, N. ; Shen, G.

We report the first implementation of the new SPARC V9 64-b instruction set architecture. The HaL processor called SPARC64 is a ceramic Multi-Chip Module (MCM) that contains one CPU chip, one Memory Management Unit (MMU) chip, and four 64 KB Cache chips. Together, they implement a unique three-level address translation scheme that efficiently supports using virtual addresses spread anywhere in the full 64-b address range. The processor assigns a serial number to each issued instruction to track up to 64 in-progress instructions and can speculatively issue through up to 16 branches. It issues up to 4 instructions per cycle and utilizes superscalar instruction issue, register renaming, and dataflow (potentially out-of-order) execution to fully exploit instruction-level parallelism. The processor maintains a precise-state execution model, and commits in-order, up to 9 instructions in a cycle. In a HaL R1 system, a production SPARC64 running at 143 MHz has a performance of 230 SPECint92 and 300 SPECfp92 and dissipates 50 W from a 3.3 V supply

Published in:

Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 11 )