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In this paper, we propose a range-free cooperative localization algorithm for mobile sensor networks by combining hop distance measurements and particle filtering. In the hop distance measurement step, a differential error correction scheme is devised to reduce the positioning error accumulated over multiple hops. A backoff-based broadcast mechanism is also introduced in our localization algorithm. It efficiently suppresses redundant broadcasts and reduces message overhead. The proposed localization method has fast converges with small location estimation error. We verify your algorithm in various scenarios and compare it with conventional localization methods. Simulation results show that our proposal is superior to the state-of-the-art localization algorithms for mobile sensor networks.