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The joint tactical radio system (JTRS) program is developing a set of mobile ad-hoc networking (MANET) waveforms, to provide the last tactical mile connectivity to the global information grid (GIG). JTRS networking services provide an Internet protocol (IP) networking stack and networking services that operate at open systems interconnection (OSI) layer 3 and below. Developers program the networking services using the Internet engineering task force (IETF) open standards (i.e. the application and transport layers). Applications must recognize and account for the different characteristics of the wireless MANET environment in order to assure successful deployments. Design decisions (at the transport and application layers) need to appropriately consider the behavior and performance of tactical wireless networks.