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Although ultrasound-based drug delivery has only seen limited clinical use for transdermal drug delivery, there has been considerable momentum in research aimed at using ultrasound for a wide variety of medical applications. Ultrasound-mediated gene therapy using sonoporation and targeted delivery has progressed from in vitro proof-of-concept studies to produce biological effects in angiogenesis and diabetes studies. These techniques have also been used for cancer therapy, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in animal models. It is also worth noting that ultrasound can facilitate targeted drug delivery through thermal means, in addition to the mechanisms associated with cavitation. Ultrasound hyperthermia can be used to target thermally sensitive drug-carrying liposomes or to induce gene expression through localized heat shock response.