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Commercial aviation is at the threshold of the era of the e-enabled airplane, brought about by the convergence of rapidly expanding worldwide data communication infrastructures, network-centric information processing, and commoditized lightweight computational hardware. With advanced avionics, processing, and wireless communication capabilities, the e-enabled airplane can revolutionize the current air transportation system. However, the use of unregulated information technology and wireless technologies introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited to provide unauthorized access to the onboard aviation information systems and impede their operation. The emerging security threats are not covered by current aviation guidance, and regulations, hence, remain to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of security of the e-enabled airplane with applications such as electronic distribution of loadable software and data, as well as future directions such as wireless health monitoring, networked control, and airborne ad hoc networks.