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In this paper, the characteristics and mechanism of the transition metal oxide (TMO) based resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices were addressed. The results show that doping in oxide matrix materials, electrode material, and operating mode of the set/reset process may significantly affect the resistive switching behaviors of RRAM devices. Optimizing the dopants and matrix materials, electrode materials, device structure, and operating modes and understanding the related mechanisms are required to achieve the excellent device performance of TMO-based RRAM for the memory application. A unified physical model, based on the electron hopping transport between oxygen vacancies along the conductive filament paths, is used to explain and describe the resistive switching behaviors of the TMO based RRAM devices.