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In this paper, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in advanced technologies is discussed. The dilemma of ESD protection in advanced technologies and whether we will maintain the need, and desire to provide ESD protection in the future will be reviewed. This issue will influence the direction of the field of ESD protection and the ESD Technology Roadmap. The paper will also focus on what will be the ESD devices used in future 45 nm and 32 nm technologies. What will be the customer expectation, and what will be the ability to continue to achieve these objectives in the future?