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In this letter, a new kind of cavity resonator based on left-handed/right-handed transmission lines is presented. The left-handed transmission line (LHTL), which can realize a negative phase shift, is formed by resonant-slot coupled cavity chain unit cells, while the right-handed transmission line (RHTL), which can realize positive phase shift, is made of coaxial waveguides. Resonance condition can be satisfied by setting the total phase shift between two ends of the cavity resonators to be zero. The design approach of the subwavelength cavity resonator is presented. Simulation and experimental results prove that the lengths of these cavity resonators can be much shorter than the conventional half-wavelength while working at the same frequency.