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High-Fidelity Data Embedding for Image Annotation

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3 Author(s)
Shan He ; Thomson Corp. Res., Princeton, NJ ; Kirovski, D. ; Min Wu

High fidelity is a demanding requirement for data hiding, especially for images with artistic or medical value. This correspondence proposes a high-fidelity image watermarking for annotation with robustness to moderate distortion. To achieve the high fidelity of the embedded image, we introduce a visual perception model that aims at quantifying the local tolerance to noise for arbitrary imagery. Based on this model, we embed two kinds of watermarks: a pilot watermark that indicates the existence of the watermark and an information watermark that conveys a payload of several dozen bits. The objective is to embed 32 bits of metadata into a single image in such a way that it is robust to JPEG compression and cropping. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the visual model and the application of the proposed annotation technology using a database of challenging photographic and medical images that contain a large amount of smooth regions.

Published in:

Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:18 ,  Issue: 2 )